hague convention
By Davy Karkason
Founding Attorney

In today’s globalized world, it’s common for legal disputes to cross international borders. Service of process, which is a legal procedure that notifies a party of the initiation of a legal action against them, is an essential part of the litigation process. However, the procedure can be quite complex when it involves international jurisdictions. Fortunately, the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters (The Hague Convention) provides a uniform system for service of process across multiple countries.

What is the Hague Convention?

The Hague Convention is an international legal treaty that outlines the procedures for serving judicial and extrajudicial documents in civil or commercial matters across the countries that are signatories to the treaty. The Convention provides for a central authority in each country that receives incoming requests and forwards them to the appropriate authority for service. It also establishes rules regarding the form and content of the documents to be served, the language to be used, and the duration and method of service.

Which countries are part of the Hague Convention?

Currently, there are 83 contracting states to the Hague Convention, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, and Germany. However, it is important to note that not all countries are signatories to the Convention. Besides, even within countries that are signatories, some countries may have reservations, declarations, or other special requirements that can affect the service procedure.

How does one start a Hague Convention process of service?

To start a Hague Convention process of service, the initiating party (the requester) must complete particular forms required by the Convention and submit them to the central authority in their country of origin who will then forward them to the central authority in the country of service. The request must be in the language of the country of service. It must also include specific details of the parties in, the case, and the document to be served. The service procedure may take from weeks to months depending on the country of service. See Hague Convention on the Service Abroad | U.S. Marshals Service (usmarshals.gov)

What are the benefits of the Hague Convention?

The Hague Convention offers numerous benefits for litigants involved in cross-border disputes. Firstly, it provides a uniform system for service of process, which saves time and money for the parties involved. Secondly, it ensures that the service procedure follows a standardized process, which reduces the likelihood of issues arising with the procedural irregularity of service. Lastly, it allows for the use of a country’s own language, which can simplify the service process and reduce linguistic barriers for the parties involved.


In conclusion, the Hague Convention provides a vital framework for efficiently and legally serving documents abroad. Nevertheless, navigating the service procedure in foreign countries can still be a complex task, and proper legal advice and assistance are often necessary. Legal professionals handling international matters need to be knowledgeable with the provisions of the Hague Convention to avoid potential procedural pitfalls and delays, ensuring proper service and a successful outcome. For more information about our international litigation practice visit International Litigation Attorneys – Transnational Matters

About the Author
As a lawyer and the founder of Transnational Matters, Davy Aaron Karkason represents numerous international companies and a wide variety of industries in Florida, the U.S., and abroad. He is dedicated to fighting against unjust expropriation and unfair treatment of any individual or entity involved in an international matter. Mr. Karason received his B.A. in Political Science & International Relations with a Minor in Criminal Justice from Nova Southeastern University. If you have any questions about this article you can contact Davy Karkason through our contact page.