PPP contract
By Davy Karkason
Founding Attorney

Public-Private Partnership agreements have become a popular option for governments worldwide in delivering infrastructure and other social services. PPPs are relationship contracts between private firms and public institutions that provide a framework for collaboration in particular nations or regions. PPP contracts are commonly comprehensive documents that regulate the management of funds, governance structure, operation, services, and revenue sharing, among other duties. As these contracts often involve significant amounts of money, it is crucial to consider the terms and conditions as well as arbitration clauses to protect both parties. While PPP contracts may appear rigid at first glance, it is possible to negotiate these legal agreements, including international arbitration clauses. The following is a detailed discussion of the possibilities of negotiating PPP contract terms. See PPP Contract Types and Terminology Public Private Partnership (worldbank.org)

Negotiations of PPP Contracts

Negotiating PPP contracts is a critical and complex process. While the standard of PPP contracts is made by public authorities, governments have some flexibility in tailoring these agreements to suit their circumstances. They can negotiate the terms to align them with their objectives, budgetary requirements, government policies, and the local legal framework.

Flexible contracts allow companies and investors to propose solutions that better fit their technical and organizational needs. When done right, PPP contracts can lead to more successful and efficient projects.

Several Key Points

  • One key area of PPP contract negotiation is the terms and conditions. Public agencies need to provide a framework that encourages private partners to invest, innovate and operate efficiently. As such, they may offer revenue guarantees, modifications to tariffs or fare structures and tax incentives, among other approaches. Conversely, private firms will require security over their invested capital and predictable returns on that investment. The proper balance between protection and incentives is essential. Therefore, both parties need to bargain effectively to avoid disputes later on. This bargaining can lead to a compromise where the needs of both parties are considered and built into the agreement.
  • Another area where negotiation can take place is the inclusion of an International Arbitration Clause. The negotiations around this particular clause go beyond the terms and conditions of PPP contracts. An International Arbitration Clause acts as a preventive measure for situations where a dispute arises. In a PPP contract, where there is a dispute between the parties involved, an International Arbitration Clause provides for a mechanism to resolve disputes other than litigation. International arbitration is favored by many investors as it avoids local courts which can be unpredictable, uncertain, and time-consuming. Therefore, governments seeking investment should consider the inclusion of an International Arbitration Clause in their PPP contracts, and negotiations can be held around this clause.

The contents of a PPP contract can be diverse and intricate. A proper way to ensure that both parties in the agreement are satisfied with the terms of the contract is to have negotiators who are experts in PPP contracts. Specialist in this area can help construct the PPP contract, bring in their expertise, and help with the negotiations. They can also provide guidance through the entire contracting process, from conception through to the post-award transaction period. Using PPP contractual specialists ensures that negotiations around entire sections of the PPP contract are conducted from a knowledgeable point of view.

Negotiations around the entire PPP contract offer an opportunity for parties to build a contractual relationship. The negotiation process allows parties in the negotiations to understand each other’s point of view and requirements in creating a competitive, equitable, and beneficial contract. The relationship between the parties should be based on equality, trust, and respect. Therefore, both parties must have engagement in discussions that center on creating the best PPP contract possible.


The negotiation of PPP contracts can be a challenging process, but the outcome is a long-lasting contract between two or more parties that provides a mechanism for both sides to achieve their goals. The negotiation of PPP contracts around the terms and conditions and the inclusion of an International Arbitration Clause provides an opportunity for governments and private companies to have a shared understanding of the objectives. This shared understanding can turn into a long-standing relationship that is beneficial for both parties. Governments seeking investment through PPP contracts should get experts in the field to help with PPP contracting and negotiations. PPP contracting specialists can help negotiate proper clauses in PPP contracts, which can benefit both public and private parties. For more information about PPP contracts, visit What are PPP Contracts? – Transnational Matters

About the Author
As a lawyer and the founder of Transnational Matters, Davy Aaron Karkason represents numerous international companies and a wide variety of industries in Florida, the U.S., and abroad. He is dedicated to fighting against unjust expropriation and unfair treatment of any individual or entity involved in an international matter. Mr. Karason received his B.A. in Political Science & International Relations with a Minor in Criminal Justice from Nova Southeastern University. If you have any questions about this article you can contact Davy Karkason through our contact page.