two diplomats sitting at a table, negotiating with documents in front of them.
By Davy Karkason
Founding Attorney

Understanding Treaty Provisions and Claims in Investment Treaties

Investment treaties stand as silent sentinels, shaping the flow of global finance and safeguarding foreign direct investment against unpredictable risks and geopolitical whims.

These complex bilateral investment treaty agreements, woven with clauses that span from protection against expropriation to fair and equitable treatment, offer a navigational chart for investors crossing international waters.

Yet, understanding the intricacies of these treaties, from their foundational principles to the specific provisions that trigger claims, requires a keen eye and a depth of knowledge.

As global commerce continues to evolve, staying abreast of recent trends, landmark case studies, and practical strategies for leveraging these treaties becomes paramount.

In this article, we unravel the tapestry of investment treaties, guiding investors through the maze of legal jargon and strategic considerations.

Key Takeaways

  • Investment Treaties Foster Stability and Security, Encouraging Foreign Direct Investment Through Legal Frameworks and Dispute Resolution
  • Fair and Equitable Treatment, National Treatment, and Most Favored Nation Status Are Core Principles That Protect Investors Against Discrimination and Unfair Practices
  • The Evolving Landscape of International Investment Includes Shifts Towards Prioritizing Sustainable Development and Embedding Social Responsibility Within Treaties
  • Staying Informed About Treaty Updates and Engaging With Legal Experts Enables Investors to Adapt Strategies and Maximize Protection
  • Analyzing Past Treaty Claims Provides Valuable Insights for Strategic Planning and Preparation in Future Disputes

Understanding the Foundation of Investment Treaties

two government officials shake hands over a table with a globe in the background, symbolizing international cooperation and agreement.

Investment treaties serve as the bedrock of stability and assurance in the tumultuous terrain of international investments.

They establish a legal framework that transcends national boundaries, providing a secure environment for foreign direct investment (FDI).

These agreements between states, often embedded within the wider scope of international law, outline the roles, rights, and obligations of the parties involved, ensuring that investors receive fair treatment and protection against undue expropriation or discrimination through contract.

Through key components such as bilateral investment treaty dispute resolution mechanisms and standards for investor protection, investment treaties pave the way for sustainable development and economic partnership, reinforcing the confidence of investors as they navigate the complexities of international economics.

The Role of Investment Treaties in International Law

Investment treaties, deeply embedded within the realm of international law, play a pivotal role in shaping the landscape of global commerce and finance. They act as the scaffolding upon which the architecture of bilateral investment treaty is constructed, ensuring that all participants adhere to agreed-upon standards and practices.

This adherence to international standards fosters an atmosphere of predictability and security, crucial for attracting foreign direct investment. By laying down clear guidelines for treatment of investments and providing mechanisms for dispute resolution, these treaties create a more stable environment for international economic activity:

  • Establishing a harmonious relationship between states and foreign investors through the recognition and enforcement of mutual rights and obligations.
  • Offering a balanced platform for the resolution of disputes that may arise, thereby avoiding escalation and fostering a constructive dialogue.
  • Encouraging adherence to principles of non-discrimination and fair treatment, thereby promoting an inclusive and equitable investment climate.

Key Components of Investment Treaty Frameworks

The architecture of investment treaty frameworks is distinguished by several critical components designed to cement trust and transparency between states and investors. Among these, the provision for fair and equitable treatment stands prominent, aiming to ensure that foreign investors encounter a consistent and bias-free regulatory environment, thus maintaining the sanctity of the agreed terms against the backdrop of international law.

Another cornerstone in these frameworks is the mechanism for dispute resolution, typically embodied by arbitration through esteemed bodies such as the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) or under rules like the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). This aspect safeguards the process of resolving disagreements over treaty interpretation or application, offering a clear, streamlined path to justice outside of national court systems, and thereby enhancing the appeal of cross-border investments by mitigating risks associated with legal uncertainties.

How Investment Treaties Protect Investors

Investment treaties ensure the protection of investors by establishing norms and procedures that govern the treatment of foreign direct investments. This legal shield operates to prevent unfair expropriation, guaranteeing that investments cannot be seized without prompt, adequate, and effective compensation.

Moreover, these agreements embody clauses that mandate national treatment and most favoured nation status, ensuring that foreign investors are not discriminated against in favor of domestic investors or investors from a third country. This creates a level playing field, encouraging a more transparent, stable, and just investment environment. The international centre for settlement of investment disputes plays a crucial role in this process.

Decoding Key Provisions in Investment Treaties

two diplomats shaking hands in front of national flags, symbolizing the signing of an international agreement.

Investment treaties are complex instruments designed to protect and promote foreign direct investment by establishing a legal framework that governs the investment relationship between states and foreign investors. Each contract requires consent and ratification from the legislator before entry into force.

These treaties contain key provisions that aim to create a fair, predictable, and secure investment climate.

Among these, the principle of fair and equitable treatment ensures that investors enjoy a stable and transparent regulatory environment.

Furthermore, expropriation clauses safeguard against the non-commercial risk of government seizure without appropriate compensation.

The incorporation of national treatment and most favoured nation status provisions guarantees that investors will not face discrimination in comparison to domestic or third-country investors.

Lastly, the establishment of dispute resolution mechanisms provides a critical avenue for addressing grievances, allowing for arbitration outside of potentially biased domestic court systems.

Together, these clauses form the backbone of investment treaties, catering to the nuanced needs of international investors while encouraging cross-border economic activities.

Fair and Equitable Treatment Explained

Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET) stands as a foundational principle enshrined in investment treaties to ensure foreign investors are granted a level of treatment that does not fall below a certain standard. This principle obligates host countries to act in a transparent, predictable, and consistent manner in their dealings with foreign investments, effectively safeguarding investors from arbitrary or unfair actions by the state.

The interpretation of FET can vary, but it fundamentally encompasses the investor’s right to expect a stable regulatory and legal environment that adheres to the basic tenets of justice and fairness. This expectation underpins the trust foreign investors place in host nations, promoting an atmosphere conducive to international investment by providing a measure of security and predictability to the investment landscape.

Understanding Expropriation Clauses

Expropriation clauses are pivotal elements within investment treaties, meticulously crafted to prevent host nations from unjustly seizing foreign investments. They encase the critical principle that any expropriation must be executed for a public purpose, adhering strictly to legal procedures, and accompanied by timely, appropriate, and effective compensation.

These clauses serve as a bulwark, ensuring that foreign investments remain safeguarded from non-commercial risks. By stipulating clear conditions under which a government may intervene in the control or ownership of foreign assets, expropriation provisions maintain a balanced power dynamic between investors and host countries, promoting an environment of mutual respect and adherence to the rule of law.

National Treatment and Most Favored Nation Status

National Treatment and Most Favored Nation Status are central pillars in the structure of investment treaties, designed to ensure a level playing field for all foreign investors. By pledging National Treatment, host countries agree to grant foreign investors the same treatment as given to their own citizens, removing any biased advantage that might otherwise exist.

The Most Favored Nation provision further amplifies this principle by ensuring that any preference or privilege offered to investors from one nation must be extended to all other parties to the vienna convention on the law of treaties:

Treaty ProvisionPurposeImpact on Foreign Investment
National TreatmentTo provide equal treatment to foreign and domestic investors.Eliminates discrimination and promotes a stable, predictable investment environment.
Most Favored Nation (MFN)To extend any favorable treatment given to one nation’s investors to all treaty partners.Broadens investment opportunities and fosters a sense of fairness and equity.

Dispute Resolution Mechanisms in Treaties

Dispute resolution mechanisms within investment treaties stand as critical pillars for ensuring that conflicts between investors and states are resolved in an efficient, fair, and impartial manner. These provisions typically authorize arbitration, permitting parties to bypass often lengthy and unpredictable domestic court proceedings, thereby offering a direct route to neutral international tribunals.

The inclusion of such mechanisms not only demonstrates a commitment to uphold the principles of justice and transparency but also significantly enhances the attractiveness of a country as a destination for foreign direct investment. Arbitral tribunals, governed by established rules and procedures, provide a forum where disputes are adjudicated based on the merits, ensuring that the rights and obligations outlined in the treaties are honored.

Navigating Through Investment Treaty Claims

a group of professionals intently discusses around a large table cluttered with legal documents and international treaties.

Navigating through investment treaty claims involves a multifaceted process that requires a deep understanding of the intricacies involved in such legal frameworks.

Identifying the grounds for a claim under investment treaties marks the initial step, necessitating a thorough examination of the treaty provisions and the circumstances surrounding the potential breach.

Following this identification, the process of filing a claim demands meticulous preparation and adherence to procedural requirements, ensuring that the claimant’s arguments are cogently presented within the international centre for settlement of investment disputes.

Before initiating a claim under a bilateral investment treaty, key considerations, including the evaluation of potential outcomes, the impact on ongoing relations between the investor and the host state, and the strategic implications of such legal action, must be carefully weighed.

Together, these topics form a critical framework for stakeholders to assess their position and navigate the complexities of investment treaty claims effectively.

Identifying Grounds for a Claim Under Investment Treaties

Identifying the grounds for a claim under investment treaties hinges on a meticulous analysis of treaty provisions and the factual matrix underlying the dispute. This step involves dissecting the language of the treaty to ascertain whether a host state’s action or inaction may constitute a violation of the treaty’s terms, such as unfair treatment, expropriation without compensation, or discrimination against the foreign investor.

The process commences with an evaluation of the investor’s situation against the backdrop of the bilateral investment treaty’s clauses on fair and equitable treatment, national treatment, and most favored nation status, among others. Legal practitioners scrutinize these provisions against the circumstances of the case to determine the viability of lodging a claim, ensuring that the investor’s rights enshrined in the treaty have been compromised by the host state’s behaviors or policies.

The Process of Filing an Investment Treaty Claim

The process of filing an investment treaty claim commences with the meticulous preparation of the claim itself. This includes the collection and organization of all relevant documents, evidence, and legal arguments that substantiate the claimant’s position.

Step in Filing ProcessDescriptionImportance
Documentation GatheringAssembly of all relevant evidence and legal documents.Serves as the foundation for articulating a strong and persuasive legal argument.
Legal ArgumentationFormulation of the substantive legal arguments based on treaty provisions and international law.Crucial for demonstrating the validity of the claim and the extent of treaty breaches.

Following preparation, the claimant must officially submit the claim to the designated dispute resolution body. This step often requires adherence to specific procedural requirements and deadlines, underscoring the importance of precision and timeliness in the filing process.

Key Considerations Before Initiating a Claim

Before launching an investment treaty claim, parties must reflect on the potential ramifications this action may have on their future business ventures within the host country. A claim can significantly alter the existing relationship between an investor and the state, sometimes leading to a less cooperative stance from the host nation’s side, affecting the investor’s current and prospective operations.

Another critical aspect to consider entails a thorough evaluation of the costs and duration associated with pursuing an investment treaty claim. Legal proceedings in international arbitration can span several years and incur substantial expenses, including legal fees and tribunal costs, requiring investors to assess their financial readiness and the long-term value of their bilateral investment treaty claim.

Case Studies: Landmark Investment Treaty Claims

a global map highlighting different countries, symbolizing areas of significant investment treaty claims and disputes.

The exploration of case studies concerning landmark investment treaty claims unfolds a rich tapestry of insights and prevailing themes in the sphere of international investment law.

By closely scrutinizing instances where claims have met with success, as well as those that fell short, stakeholders gain a profound understanding of the dynamics at play.

These analyses not only shed light on the strategic elements that underpin successful claims but also spotlight the nuanced challenges that can derail proceedings.

Furthermore, delving into the aftermath and impacts of these claims equips investors and states alike with practical lessons, guiding future treaty negotiations and dispute resolutions towards more equitable and effective outcomes.

Analyzing Successful Claims and Their Impacts

Analyzing successful claims within the realm of investment treaties reveals a dynamic interplay of legal expertise, strategic planning, and an in-depth understanding of treaty provisions. The victories in these high-stakes legal battles not only affirm the resilience and effectiveness of the vienna convention on the law of treaties but also set precedent, influencing the interpretation and application of treaty provisions in future cases.

The impacts of winning such claims extend beyond the immediate financial compensation awarded to the investor. They often lead to significant policy reforms in host countries, aimed at ensuring a more transparent, fair, and equitable treatment of future investments through the ratification of a bilateral investment treaty:

  • Policy Reforms: Host nations may undertake comprehensive reforms to their legal and regulatory frameworks to prevent future disputes.
  • Investor Confidence: Successful claims can bolster the confidence of potential investors, showcasing the strength and enforceability of investment treaties.
  • Legal Precedent: These cases contribute to the corpus of international investment law, offering guidance for both states and investors on treaty interpretation.

Lessons Learned From Failed Treaty Claims

Exploring the terrain of failed treaty claims provides invaluable lessons on the meticulous nature of international investment law and the critical importance of comprehensive preparation. These instances underscore the necessity for investors to possess a deep understanding of the precise obligations and standards enshrined in treaty provisions.:

  • Detailed Analysis: Failed claims often highlight the shortfall in conducting a thorough analysis of treaty provisions vis-à-vis the specific circumstances of the case.
  • Evidence Compilation: They also point to deficiencies in gathering robust supporting evidence to bolster the legal arguments presented.
  • Strategic Planning: Additionally, unsuccessful attempts at claims underscore the importance of strategic foresight in navigating the complex landscape of international investment arbitration.

The setbacks faced in unsuccessful investment treaty claims illuminate the path toward refining the approach to future disputes, emphasizing the critical role of precision in legal argumentation and the value of a strategic, well-informed position before initiating a claim.

a globe surrounded by various national flags, with a background of skyscrapers representing international business districts.

The landscape of international investment is continually evolving, with recent trends significantly influencing the structure and application of investment treaties.

The advent of new model bilateral investment treaties reflects a marked shift towards prioritizing sustainable development and investment protection.

Concurrently, global policy changes are reshaping treaty provisions, underscoring the need for adaptability and foresight in navigating the complex domain of international investment.

These developments not only alter the strategic considerations for states and investors alike but also underscore the importance of understanding the nuances of treaty claims in this dynamic environment.

The Impact of New Model Bilateral Investment Treaties

New model bilateral investment treaties significantly recalibrate the balance between investor rights and host state responsibilities. By integrating more comprehensive standards on environmental protection, labor rights, and sustainable development, these updated agreements aim to ensure that investment flows contribute positively to the host nation’s societal goals without compromising on investor security.

This shift towards inclusivity and sustainable practice within the framework of international investment agreements reflects a growing consensus on the need for investment to be a catalyst for broad-based growth. It changes the landscape of international investment by embedding social responsibility into the core of investment activities, thereby redefining the expectations from both foreign investors and host states.

Shifts in Global Policy Affecting Treaty Provisions

Shifts in global policy have prompted a discernible evolution in the provisions of investment treaties, mirroring the changing priorities in international relations and economics. One notable area of impact has been the increasing integration of standards pertaining to human rights and environmental sustainability, urging states and investors to prioritize these aspects alongside traditional economic considerations.

These policy shifts are also fostering a greater emphasis on transparency and public participation in the investment treaty process. Nations are progressively adopting clauses that mandate the disclosure of treaty-related documents and require investor-state dispute settlements to be more accessible to the public, aiming to enhance accountability and legitimacy in the governance of foreign investments.

Practical Advice for Investors Regarding Investment Treaties

two individuals sit across from each other at a table, examining a large, open document together in a well-lit office space.

Navigating the intricate world of investment treaties demands a proactive strategy from investors, emphasizing the importance of leveraging these treaties for enhanced protection and staying abreast of any changes in their provisions.

Understanding the mechanics of these legal documents allows investors to safeguard their interests effectively, while monitoring updates ensures they adapt their strategies to align with the evolving landscape of international investment law.

This section provides critical insights into how investors can utilize investment treaties to their advantage and the significance of keeping informed about treaty updates.

How to Effectively Use Investment Treaties for Protection

To harness the protective capabilities of investment treaties efficiently, investors should initiate comprehensive due diligence before entering a foreign market, focusing on understanding and aligning their investment strategies with the specific provisions of relevant treaties. This approach not only secures a safety net in terms of legal and financial risk mitigation but also primes investors for leveraging dispute resolution mechanisms and safeguards embedded in the treaties, should disputes arise.

Engaging with legal experts who specialize in international investment law enables investors to navigate the intricacies of treaty provisions effectively, ensuring that their investments are structured in a manner that maximizes protection. Expert guidance facilitates the identification of strategic opportunities within the treaty framework, such as utilizing Most Favored Nation clauses to their advantage, and crafting investment activities to fall squarely within the scope of treaty protections.

Monitoring Changes and Updates in Treaty Provisions

Staying informed about changes and updates in treaty provisions is fundamental for investors seeking to maintain the protections and advantages afforded by investment treaties. It is imperative that investors regularly consult reliable sources such as the official websites of international arbitration institutions or specialized legal advisories to capture real-time updates on treaties.

Adapting investment strategies based on the latest treaty provisions can significantly enhance an investor’s position in foreign markets. This proactive approach ensures that investments remain aligned with the most current legal frameworks, maximizing protection against unforeseen risks and disputes:

  • Regularly reviewing updates from authoritative legal databases and international investment forums.
  • Engaging with legal professionals for in-depth analyses of newly adopted treaty provisions.
  • Adjusting investment structures and strategies in response to revised treaty clauses to safeguard interests.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the fundamental principles that serve as the foundation of investment treaties?

The fundamental principles underpinning investment treaties are the equitable treatment and protection of foreign investments, coupled with mechanisms for dispute resolution aimed at fostering international economic cooperation. These principles are tailored to ensure that both investors’ interests and the rights of sovereign states are balanced, promoting an environment conducive to foreign direct investment.

How can investors decipher and understand the key provisions outlined in investment treaties?

Investors can untangle the complexities of investment treaties by meticulously analyzing their terms and conditions, focusing on provisions related to protection, dispute resolution, and the definitions of investments. Seeking guidance from legal experts with a deep understanding of international trade law and arbitration could further illuminate the nuances of these agreements, ensuring investors are well-informed about their rights and responsibilities under the treaty.

What steps are involved in navigating through investment treaty claims in case of disputes?

Navigating through investment treaty claims in the event of disputes involves a structured approach, beginning with a thorough analysis of the investment treaty under which the claim is made, followed by the initiation of arbitration via a recognized arbitration institution or tribunal as stipulated by the treaty. This process, while intricate, underscores the importance of understanding the precise mechanisms for dispute resolution outlined in international investment agreements and bilateral or multilateral treaties.

At the heart of these disputes is often the issue of consent between the investor and the host state, an aspect fundamentally governed by the bilateral investment treaty itself. The arbitration process typically commences with the filing of a notice of arbitration, setting in motion the formal dispute resolution mechanism that parties must navigate. This step is critical as it officially signals the intent to resolve the dispute through arbitration, a pathway recognized under institutions such as the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) or under the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Arbitration Rules.

Subsequent phases involve the appointment of arbitrators to form the arbitral tribunal, a process imbued with considerations of neutrality, expertise, and appropriateness to the specific dispute at hand. The complexities of international law, including principles enshrined in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties or customary international law, play a significant role in shaping the proceedings. It is not just a matter of law; the economic, policy, and human rights implications often entangle with legal arguments, presenting a multidimensional challenge for parties and arbitrators alike.

Following the constitution of the tribunal, parties proceed to present their cases through written submissions and, eventually, oral hearings. These stages are where the dense tapestry of international trade law, investment protections, state obligations, and investor rights unfolds. Arbitrators must weigh these considerations carefully, drawing on precedents, doctrines, and the specific language of the applicable treaty. The tribunal’s deliberations culminate in the issuance of an award, which can direct the respondent state to take specific actions, pay compensation, or, in some cases, reject the claims.

The arbitration award is not necessarily the end of the road. The possibility of annulment or challenges before local courts, or considerations of enforcement under the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (the New York Convention), introduces further steps into the landscape. Each of these stages underscores the importance of strategic planning, comprehensive legal analysis, and engagement with the nuances of international arbitration.

Embarking on this path demands not only legal acumen but also an acute awareness of the broader implications for foreign direct investment, state sovereignty, and the global regulatory environment shaping international economics and trade relations.

Could you provide some examples of landmark investment treaty claims to gain a better understanding?

Certainly, gaining insight into landmark investment treaty claims can significantly enhance one’s understanding of the complex landscape of international investment. One pivotal example is the case between Vattenfall and Germany, where the energy giant sued the German government following its decision to phase out nuclear energy, claiming it impacted their investments. Another case worth noting involved Phillip Morris suing Uruguay for its stringent anti-smoking legislation, which the tobacco company argued was detrimental to its investment interests. These instances underscore the intricate balance between protecting investor rights and upholding sovereign state policies on public health and environmental protection.

Recent trends and developments in the landscape of investment treaties are significantly influenced by a growing emphasis on sustainable development and the increasing scrutiny of dispute resolution mechanisms. These shifts not only recalibrate the balance of rights and obligations between investors and host states but also underscore the critical role of transparency and public participation in shaping international investment agreements.

Investment treaties have long been pivotal in safeguarding foreign direct investment, by establishing a framework that governs the relationship between investors and host states. Traditionally, these treaties have focused on protecting investors from unfair treatment through provisions like national treatment, most favored nation status, and compensation for expropriation. Yet, the trajectory of international investment law is witnessing a remarkable evolution, driven by the demands of an interconnected global economy and the urgent need for policies that support sustainable growth.

One of the salient features characterizing current reforms in investment treaties is the integration of sustainable development goals. Countries and international organizations are increasingly embedding environmental, social, and governance criteria into the DNA of investment policies. This shift reflects a broader understanding that investments should not merely yield economic benefits but also foster environmental stewardship and social wellbeing. Countries like Slovenia, Latvia, and Slovakia are at the forefront, embedding sustainable development principles directly into their bilateral investment treaties, thereby setting new benchmarks for future agreements.

Another noteworthy development pertains to the mechanism for dispute resolution. The traditional reliance on international arbitration to settle disputes between foreign investors and states is facing critical examination. Critics argue that arbitration can circumvent national legal systems and diminish regulatory autonomy, leading to decisions that might prioritize investor rights over public policy objectives. As a response, there’s a discernible movement towards reforming dispute resolution processes to ensure greater fairness and transparency. The trend includes exploring alternative dispute resolution mechanisms and enhancing the role of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in fostering more equitable arbitration processes.

Moreover, the emphasis on improving the procedural fairness of investment treaties has spurred initiatives aimed at enhancing transparency. Recent treaties now often include provisions mandating the public disclosure of arbitration proceedings and documents, a stark contrast to the previously private nature of dispute settlements. Such openness aims at bolstering public trust and ensuring that the processes do not only serve the interests of the parties involved but also respect the rights of affected communities and stakeholders.

Global and regional dynamics further shape the landscape of investment treaties. The European Union (EU), for instance, continues to refine its investment policy framework, balancing investor protection with the rights of member states to regulate in the public interest. Decisions by the European Court of Justice, clarifications on the investment court system within the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), and ongoing negotiations for a multilateral reform of investment dispute resolution under the auspices of UNCITRAL are illustrative of these dynamics. Additionally, the increasing engagement of developing countries in treaty negotiations reflects a shift towards a more inclusive and diversified dialogue on international investment agreements.

In summary, the evolving landscape of investment treaties is marked by an enhanced focus on sustainable development, reforms in dispute resolution mechanisms aimed at achieving greater fairness and transparency, and a re-calibration of the balance between protecting investor rights and safeguarding the public interest. For investors, these developments underscore the importance of adapting to a changing legal environment, one that demands not only a keen understanding of new regulatory frameworks but also a commitment to responsible investment practices that align with global sustainability goals.


Understanding treaty provisions and claims in investment treaties is crucial for navigating the complexities of international investments.

These treaties offer a secure and predictable framework, ensuring fair treatment of investors and protection against arbitrary actions like expropriation.

They level the playing field through key clauses on national treatment and most favored nation status, while dispute resolution mechanisms provide a fair avenue for resolving conflicts outside domestic courts.

By entrusting your investment treaty matters to Transnational Matters’ skilled attorneys, you can rest assured that your interests will be expertly protected. Our team’s vast knowledge of treaty provisions allows us to help you leverage protections to your advantage and successfully navigate the ever-evolving legal landscape. For more information, Contact our Office Today

About the Author
As a lawyer and the founder of Transnational Matters, Davy Aaron Karkason represents numerous international companies and a wide variety of industries in Florida, the U.S., and abroad. He is dedicated to fighting against unjust expropriation and unfair treatment of any individual or entity involved in an international matter. Mr. Karason received his B.A. in Political Science & International Relations with a Minor in Criminal Justice from Nova Southeastern University. If you have any questions about this article you can contact Davy Karkason through our contact page.