international joint venture
By Davy Karkason
Founding Attorney

In today’s global economy, forming alliances with foreign businesses is inevitable. Cross-border collaborations are a key strategy for business expansion and diversification. However, before signing any agreements, it is essential to understand the differences between an International Joint Venture (IJV) and an International Partnership (IP).

Businesses commonly use an IJV and IP to establish business relationships, but they cannot interchange them. Each of them has unique features, advantages, and disadvantages. In this blog post, we will distinguish between IJVs and IPs, outline their basic characteristics, and discuss issues related to international arbitration. Please visit How To Form A Successful Global Joint Venture ( for more information.

International Joint Venture (IJV)

An IJV is a legal entity where two or more companies from different countries combine their resources, expertise, and capital to form a new business venture. The IJV operates independently and is governed by a separate Board of Directors. The partners share risks, profits, and losses in proportions agreed upon.

The advantage of an IJV is that it allows a company to penetrate a foreign market through a local partner with established connections, knowledge of the market, and cultural understanding. For example, an American company seeking to enter the Indian market may form an IJV with an Indian company to share the risks and resources.

However, an IJV can also have drawbacks. For instance, differences in cultures, management styles, and business practices may lead to conflict. The partners must agree on the governance structure, management style, and dispute resolution mechanisms before embarking on the venture.

International Partnership (IP)

An IP is an arrangement where two or more companies work together on a specific project or purpose without forming a new legal entity. The partners remain independent and are not liable for each other’s obligations or debts.

The advantage of an IP is that it allows companies to collaborate on a project without sharing control or profits and losses. For instance, an American airline company may partner with a French aircraft manufacturer to develop and market a new aircraft for joint sales.

However, an IP has its own challenges. The partners must define their roles, responsibilities, and liabilities clearly and agree on the ownership of intellectual property, confidentiality, and termination of the partnership.

International Arbitration Issues

Both IJV and IP agreements should include dispute resolution mechanisms that provide a fair and effective method for resolving disputes between the partners. International arbitration offers several advantages, such as neutrality, confidentiality, and enforceability of awards, which make it the most common method used to resolve cross-border disputes.

However, some IJV and IP agreements may have disputes over choice of law, jurisdiction, appointment of arbitrators, and enforcement of awards. These disputes may arise due to differences in legal systems, cultures, or national interests. Therefore, it’s essential to specify the governing law, the seat of arbitration, and the applicable rules before signing the agreement.


Companies use IJVs and IPs as two types of business alliances for international collaborations. They have different characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages that should be considered before making a decision. IJV involves forming a new legal entity for a new venture, while IP is an arrangement to work together on a specific project without forming a new entity. Both IJV and IP require a clear definition of governance, management, roles, and liabilities to avoid disputes. International arbitration is the most common method used to resolve disputes between partners because it provides fairness, confidentiality, and enforceability. However, it’s essential to specify the governing law, seat of arbitration, and applicable rules in the agreement to avoid disputes over dispute resolution mechanisms.

For more information about our cross border practice, please visit Foreign & Domestic General Counsel Services – Miami FL (

About the Author
As a lawyer and the founder of Transnational Matters, Davy Aaron Karkason represents numerous international companies and a wide variety of industries in Florida, the U.S., and abroad. He is dedicated to fighting against unjust expropriation and unfair treatment of any individual or entity involved in an international matter. Mr. Karason received his B.A. in Political Science & International Relations with a Minor in Criminal Justice from Nova Southeastern University. If you have any questions about this article you can contact Davy Karkason through our contact page.